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What causes Kidney stones?

What is Kidney stone?


In most cases, your kidneys filter waste from your blood and produce urine (pee). Crystals grow in your kidneys when there is too much waste in your blood and your body isn’t making enough urine. These crystals attract additional wastes and chemicals, forming a solid item (a kidney stone) that will grow in size unless it is passed through your urine.

What are the types of  Kidney stones?


There are four different types of stones:

Calcium oxalate: The most common type of kidney stone, formed when calcium in the urine combines with oxalate to form a stone. Inadequate calcium and fluid intake, among other things, can contribute to their development.

Uric acid is another common type of kidney stone. Purines are a natural chemical component found in large amounts in foods such as organ meats and shellfish. When you consume a lot of purine, your body makes more mono sodium urate, which can lead to kidney stones if the conditions are right. These stones have a proclivity for running in families.

Struvite: These stones are caused by infections in the upper urinary tract, and they are less common.

Cystine is an unique stone that is passed down down the generations.

What are the causes of Kidney stones?


People between the ages of 20 and 50 are most likely to get kidney stones.

Sex is also a factor. Kidney stones affect more men than women, and a history of kidney stones can raise your risk.

Other aspects to consider are:



a high-protein, high-salt, or high-glucose diet

hyperparathyroidism is a disorder in which the thyroid gland produces too much much thyroid hormone.

bypass surgery for the stomach

Calcium absorption is increased by inflammatory bowel disorders.

using triamterene diuretics, antiseizure medicines, and calcium-based antacids

What are the symptoms of Kidney stones?


One or additional of the subsequent symptoms may well be present:

  • each side of your lower back are in harrowing discomfort
  • a more generalised pain or a abdomen ache that won’t depart
  • urine with blood in it
  • instinctive reflex or nausea chills and fever urine with a foul odour or a hazy look.

What are the treatments for kidney stones or kidney removal?


A urologist can employ the following therapies to remove or break up a kidney stone:

Shock wave lithotripsy is a type of lithotripsy that breaks up stones by using shock waves. The kidney stone can be shattered into little fragments using shock wave lithotripsy. The tiny fragments of the kidney stone then pass via your urinary tract. A doctor can provide anaesthesia during this outpatient treatment.

The bladder and ureter can be observed via cystoscopy and ureteroscopy, respectively. A cystoscopy is a procedure in which a doctor uses a cystoscope to examine your urethra and bladder to see if you have a stone in your urethra or bladder. Aureteroscope, which is longer and thinner than a cystoscope, is used to inspect the lining of the ureters and kidneys during ureteroscopy.

Percutaneous nephrolithotomy is a type of nephrolithotomy in which the physician uses a thin viewing equipment known as a nephroscope to find and cast off the kidney stone through the pores and skin. The device is immediately inserted into your kidney through a small cut in your back.

What are the diets that need to be avoided from getting kidney stones?


The most important thing you can do to avoid kidney stones is to drink enough liquid, primarily water.

If you have these sorts of kidney stones, you may need to adjust what you eat and drink:

Calcium Oxalate Stones :Peanuts, rhubarb, spinach, beets, Swiss chard, chocolate, and sweet potatoes are examples of foods high in oxalate. People who develop calcium oxalate stones, the most common type of kidney stone, may benefit by limiting their intake of these items.

Calcium Phosphate Stones :Calcium phosphate can form kidney stones if you consume too much sodium. Limit animal protein in your diet, in addition to minimising sodium.Beef, chicken, and pork, particularly organ meat,Eggs,Shellfish is a type of fish,Milk, cheese, and yoghurt are examples of dairy products.

Stones made of uric acid:Purines are a natural chemical component found in abundance in red meat, organ meats, and shellfish. A high purine consumption leads to increased uric acid synthesis and a greater acid load for the kidneys to remove. More acidic urine results from increased uric acid excretion. Urine with a high acid content makes it simpler for uric acid stones to develop.

Stones of Cystine:The most crucial lifestyle modification you can make to prevent cystine stones is to drink adequate liquid, mostly water.

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